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Abraham
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Kamus Kompilasi
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==K.Tokoh== Abraham
   Abram, anak Terah (/TB Kej 11:26-27), suami Sarai (Kej 11:29*).

   Perjanjian Allah dengan Abram (/TB Kej 12:1-3; 13:14-17; 15:1-21;
      /TB Kej 17:1-27; 22:15-18; Kel 2:24; Neh 9:8; Mazm 105:1-45; Mi 7:20;
      /TB Luk 1:68-75; Rom 4:1-25; Ibr 6:13-15).

   Dipanggil keluar dari Hur, melalui Haran, ke Kanaan
      (/TB Kej 12:1; Kis 7:2-4; Ibr 11:8-10).
   Pindah ke Mesir, hampir Sara diambil oleh Firaun (/TB Kej 12:10-20).
   Membagikan tanah dengan Lot; tinggal di Hebron (dalam /TB Kej 13:1-18).
   Menyelamatkan Lot dari empat raja (/TB Kej 14:1-16);
      diberkati Melkisedek (/TB Kej 14:17-20; Ibr 7:1-20).
   Diberhitungkan benar karena iman (/TB Kej 15:6; Rom 4:3; Gal 3:6-9).
   Menjadi ayah Ismael dengan Hagar (dalam /TB Kej 16:1-16).

   Namanya diganti dari Abram (/TB Kej 17:5; Neh 9:7).
   Disunatkan (dalam /TB Kej 17:1-27; Rom 4:9-12).
   Menerima tiga tamu (dalam /TB Kej 18:1-33); dijanjikan seorang anak
      laki-laki melalui Sara (/TB Kej 18:9-15; 17:16).
   Bertanya mengenai kemusnahan Sodom dan Gomora (/TB Kej 18:16-33).
   Pindah ke Gerar; hampir Sara diambil oleh Abimelekh
      (dalam /TB Kej 20:1-18).
   Menjadi ayah Ishak melalui Sara (/TB Kej 21:8-21; Kis 7:8; Ibr 11:11-12);
      mengusir Hagar dan Ismael (/TB Kej 21:8-21; Gal 4:22-30).
   Perjanjian dengan Abimelekh (/TB Kej 21:22-32).
   Diuji dengan mempersembahkan Ishak
      (/TB Kej 22:1-24; Ibr 11:17-19; Yak 2:21-24).
   Sara meninggal; membeli tanah Efron untuk kuburan (dalam /TB Kej 23:1-20).
   Mencari seorang istri untuk Ishak (dalam /TB Kej 24:1-67).
   Dapat anak dari Ketura (/TB Kej 25:1-6; 1Taw 1:32-33).
   Kematiannya (/TB Kej 25:7-11).

   Disebut hamba Allah (/TB Kej 26:24),
      sahabat Allah (/TB 2Taw 20:7; Yes 41:8; Yak 2:23),
      nabi (/TB Kej 20:7),
      bapa orang Israel (/TB Kel 3:15; Yes 51:2; Mat 3:9; Yoh 8:39-58).

 ==K.Kecil== Abraham
 Abraham; Abram
 TB-  Berasal dari Ur-Kasdim di Mesopotamia Selatan; dipanggil untuk
      memasuki tanah Kanaan, di mana Allah mengadakan suatu perjanjian
      dengan dia. Bersama-sama dengan Ishak dan Yakub ia diakui sebagai
      nenek moyang bangsa Israel (/TB Kej 12:25). Dalam Perjanjian Baru
      diakui sebagai bapa "semua orang percaya" (/TB Rom 4:11).

 KS.- [PL] lahir, /TB Kej 11:26;
          kawin dengan Sarai, /TB Kej 11:29;
          pindah dari Ur ke Haran, /TB Kej 11:31;
          dipanggil oleh TUHAN, /TB Kej 12:1-5;
          pergi ke Mesir, /TB Kej 12:10-20;
          berpisah dengan Lot, /TB Kej 3:7-11;
          membebaskan Lot, /TB Kej 14:13-16;
          menerima perjanjian TUHAN, /TB Kej 15:18; 17:1-22;
          berubah nama dari Abram menjadi Abraham, /TB Kej 17:5;
          dikunjungi malaikat, /TB Kej 18:1-21;
          tawar-menawar dengan Tuhan mengenai Sodom, /TB Kej 18:22-23;
          mengusir Hagar dan Ismael, /TB Kej 21:9-21;
          membawa Ishak untuk dipersembahkan kepada Tuhan, /TB Kej 22:1-14;
          menguburkan Sara di Makhpela, pasal /TB Kej 23:1-20;
          menikah dengan Ketura, /TB Kej 25:1;
          meninggal dan dikuburkan, /TB Kej 25:8-9.
      [PB] /TB Mat 3:9; Luk 1:73; 16:22-30; Yoh 8:33-58; Rom 4:1-22;
           /TB Gal 3:6-29; Ibr 11:8-11,17; Yak 2:21,23.

 ==K.Haag== Abraham
 Abraham.
      (Bentuk logat kata 'Abram', yang berasal dari bahasa Semit Barat.
 Arti kata itu masih dipertentangkan. Boleh jadi sama artinya dengan -->
 Abiram. Dalam /TB Kej 17:5 terungkap pengertian etimologi rakyat, di mana
 nama ~A. diterangkan sebagai nama yang baru [Moyang-asal banyak bangsa]).

 (I) Abraham adalah moyang pertama di antara para --> Bapa bangsa
     (/TB Kej 12:1-15:21). Di dalam pribadinya -- dengan dalih
     pengembaraan-pengembaraan" -- dipersatukanlah berbagai cerita legenda
     daerah maupun cerita legenda tempat-tempat kudus mengenai
     pribadi-pribadi asli yang lain. Secara kebetulan dipersatukan pula
     cerita-cerita ~A. lainnya yang terpisah sendiri-sendiri
     (/TB Kej 12:1-4,6,8 dan seterusnya; Kej 13:1-17* dan seterusnya;
     /TB Kej 18:1). Janji illahi merupakan garis besar kisah ~A. Adapun
     ~A. akan memiliki tanah Kanaan yang menjadi kenyataan pada saat
     meluasnya kerajaan agung Daud (/TB Kej 15:18). Yakub dipandang
     sebagai Bapa bangsa Israel, sedangkan Abraham mewakili
     hubungan-hubungan Isr. dengan para bangsa tetangga: Aram, Moab, Ammon
     dan bangsa Ismael (/TB Kej 11:28-30; 16:11-14; 19:37 dan seterusnya;
     /TB Kej 22:20-24). Latar belakang sejarah --> cerita-cerita ~A.
     ditentukan dalam jenjang waktu antara abad 10 dan 8 seb. Mas., artinya
     di antara pengembaraan bangsa Aram dan penulisan--> Sumber E.
     Usaha-usaha untuk menempatkan ~A. dalam abad 20 seb. Mas. (--> Amrafel),
     tidak meyakinkan. Apalagi tentang asal tradisi-tradisi ~A. hampir tidak
     mungkin diberikan informasi yang tepat. Masing-masing pola cerita-cerita
     tentang para Bapa bangsa itu cocok dengan hikayat-hikayat Timur-Tengah
     kuno dan harus dilihat dalam hubungan dengan hikayat itu.

 (II) Abraham itu di-idealisir pada tradisi yang lebih muda.
     Sumber E yang fragmentaris menunjuk dia sebagai nabi (/TB Kej 20:7).
     Sumber P memperkenalkannya sebagai raja ilahi (/TB Kej 23:6).
     Yesaya menyebutnya selaku bangsa Isr. (/TB Kej 51:2) dan sahabat Allah
     (/TB Kej 41:8). -- Dalam PB., ~A. dijadikan contoh kesalehan
     (/TB Mat 8:11; Luk 16:22-31) dan contoh iman (Rom 4:1-25*;
     /TB Gal 3:6-9; Ibr 11:8-19; Yak 2:21-24). Meskipun demikian, Yesus
     harus menghadapi ketinggian hati kaum Yahudi. Mereka melihat adanya
     jaminan keselamatan lewat keturunan darah ~A. (/TB Matius 3:9).
     Paulus menekankan akan adanya suatu keturunan rokhani ~A., yang
     melintasi batas-batas bangsa Yahudi (/TB Rom 4:9-12; 9:6-8; Gal 3:6-29).

 (III) Dengan nama ~A. terdapat beberapa kitab apokrip:
      (1) Wahyu ~A. Sebuah Kitab Yahudi dari abad pertama ses. Mas.
          ~A. menghukum penyembahan berhala yang dilakukan Terah, bapaknya.
          Di dalam sebuah penglihatan visiun, ~A. mengalami hari-depan Isr.
      (2) Perjanjian~A. Sebuah legenda Yahudi. Ditulis dalam waktu yang
          tak dikenal. Kitab ini menceritakan penolakan ~A. untuk mati.
      (3) Kitab Kejadian apokrip. Kitab ini berasal dari --> Kumram dan
          mencantumkan sejumlah cerita yang bertitik pangkal pada Kitab
          /TB Kej 12:1-15:21.

Kamus Easton
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Abraham
 
 Father of a multitude, son of Terah, named Ge 11:27 before his
 older brothers Nahor and Haran, because he was the heir of the
 promises.  Till the age of seventy, Abram sojourned among his kindred
 in his native country of Chaldea. He then, with his father and his
 family and household, quitted the city of Ur, in which he had hitherto
 dwelt, and went some 300 miles north to Haran, where he abode fifteen
 years. The cause of his migration was a call from God Ac 7:2-4 There
 is no mention of this first call in the Old Testament; it is implied,
 however, in Ge 12:1ff While they tarried at Haran, Terah died at the
 age of 205 years. Abram now received a second and more definite call,
 accompanied by a promise from God Ge 12:1,2 whereupon he took his
 departure, taking his nephew Lot with him, "not knowing whither he
 went" Heb 11:8 He trusted implicitly to the guidance of Him who had 
 called him. Abram now, with a large household of probably a thousand
 souls, entered on a migratory life, and dwelt in tents.  Passing along
 the valley of the Jabbok, in the land of Canaan, he formed his first
 encampment at Sichem Ge 12:6 in the vale or oak-grove of Moreh,
 between Ebal on the north and Gerizim on the south.  Here he received
 the great promise, "I will make of thee a great nation," etc. 
 Ge 12:2,3,7 This promise comprehended not only temporal but also
 spiritual blessings. It implied that he was the chosen ancestor of the
 great Deliverer whose coming had been long ago predicted Ge 3:15
 Soon after this, for some reason not mentioned, he removed his tent to
 the mountain district between Bethel, then called Luz, and Ai, towns 
 about two miles apart, where he built an altar to "Jehovah." He again 
 moved into the southern tract of Palestine, called by the Hebrews the 
 Negeb; and was at length, on account of a famine, compelled to go down 
 into Egypt. This took place in the time of the Hyksos, a Semitic race 
 which now held the Egyptians in bondage. Here occurred that case of 
 deception on the part of Abram which exposed him to the rebuke of 
 Pharaoh Ge 12:18 Sarai was restored to him; and Pharaoh loaded him
 with presents, recommending him to withdraw from the country. He
 returned to Canaan richer than when he left it, "in cattle, in silver,
 and in gold" Ge 12:8-13:2 Comp.  Ps 105:13, 14 The whole 
 party then moved northward, and returned to their previous station near 
 Bethel. Here disputes arose between Lot's shepherds and those of Abram 
 about water and pasturage.  Abram generously gave Lot his choice of the 
 pasture-ground. Comp. 1Co 6:7 He chose the well-watered plain in
 which Sodom was situated, and removed thither; and thus the uncle and
 nephew were separated.  Immediately after this Abram was cheered by a
 repetition of the promises already made to him, and then removed to the 
 plain or "oak-grove" of Mamre, which is in Hebron. He finally settled 
 here, pitching his tent under a famous oak or terebinth tree, called 
 "the oak of Mamre" Ge 13:18 This was his third resting-place in
 the land.  Some fourteen years before this, while Abram was still in
 Chaldea, Palestine had been invaded by Chedorlaomer, King of Elam, who
 brought under tribute to him the five cities in the plain to which Lot 
 had removed. This tribute was felt by the inhabitants of these cities 
 to be a heavy burden, and after twelve years they revolted. This 
 brought upon them the vengeance of Chedorlaomer, who had in league with 
 him four other kings. He ravaged the whole country, plundering the 
 towns, and carrying the inhabitants away as slaves. Among those thus 
 treated was Lot. Hearing of the disaster that had fallen on his nephew, 
 Abram immediately gathered from his own household a band of 318 armed 
 men, and being joined by the Amoritish chiefs Mamre, Aner, and Eshcol, 
 he pursued after Chedorlaomer, and overtook him near the springs of the 
 Jordan. They attacked and routed his army, and pursued it over the 
 range of Anti-Libanus as far as to Hobah, near Damascus, and then 
 returned, bringing back all the spoils that had been carried away.  
 Returning by way of Salem, i.e., Jerusalem, the king of that place, 
 Melchizedek, came forth to meet them with refreshments. To him Abram 
 presented a tenth of the spoils, in recognition of his character as a 
 priest of the most high God Ge 14:18-20 In a recently discovered 
 tablet, dated in the reign of the grandfather of Amraphel Ge 14:1 
 one of the witnesses is called "the Amorite, the son of Abiramu," or 
 Abram. Having returned to his home at Mamre, the promises already made 
 to him by God were repeated and enlarged Ge 13:14 "The word of the 
 Lord" (an expression occurring here for the first time) "came to him" 
 Ge 15:1 He now understood better the future that lay before the 
 nation that was to spring from him.  Sarai, now seventy-five years old, 
 in her impatience, persuaded Abram to take Hagar, her Egyptian maid, as 
 a concubine, intending that whatever child might be born should be 
 reckoned as her own.  Ishmael was accordingly thus brought up, and was 
 regarded as the heir of these promises Ge 16:1ff When Ishmael
 was thirteen years old, God again revealed yet more explicitly and
 fully his gracious purpose; and in token of the sure fulfilment of that 
 purpose the patriarch's name was now changed from Abram to Abraham 
 Ge 17:4,5 and the rite of circumcision was instituted as a sign of 
 the covenant. It was then announced that the heir to these covenant 
 promises would be the son of Sarai, though she was now ninety years 
 old; and it was directed that his name should be Isaac.  At the same 
 time, in commemoration of the promises, Sarai's name was changed to 
 Sarah. On that memorable day of God's thus revealing his design, 
 Abraham and his son Ishmael and all the males of his house were 
 circumcised Ge 17:1ff Three months after this, as Abraham sat in
 his tent door, he saw three men approaching. They accepted his 
 proffered hospitality, and, seated under an oak-tree, partook of the
 fare which Abraham and Sarah provided. One of the three visitants was
 none other than the Lord, and the other two were angels in the guise of
 men. The Lord renewed on this occasion his promise of a son by Sarah,
 who was rebuked for her unbelief. Abraham accompanied the three as they
 proceeded on their journey. The two angels went on toward Sodom; while
 the Lord tarried behind and talked with Abraham, making known to him
 the destruction that was about to fall on that guilty city. The
 patriarch interceded earnestly in behalf of the doomed city. But as not
 even ten righteous persons were found in it, for whose sake the city
 would have been spared, the threatened destruction fell upon it; and 
 early next morning Abraham saw the smoke of the fire that consumed it 
 as the "smoke of a furnace" Ge 19:1-28 After fifteen years' 
 residence at Mamre, Abraham moved southward, and pitched his tent among 
 the Philistines, near to Gerar. Here occurred that sad instance of 
 prevarication on his part in his relation to Abimelech the King
 Ge 20:1ff
  See ABIMELECH 23040
 
 Soon after this event, the patriarch left the vicinity of Gerar, and
 moved down the fertile valley about 25 miles to Beer-sheba.  It was
 probably here that Isaac was born, Abraham being now an hundred
 years old. A feeling of jealousy now arose between Sarah and Hagar,
 whose son, Ishmael, was no longer to be regarded as Abraham's heir.
 Sarah insisted that both Hagar and her son should be sent away. This
 was done, although it was a hard trial to Abraham Ge 21:12
  See HAGAR 24583
  See ISHMAEL 24903
 
 At this point there is a blank in the patriarch's history of perhaps 
 twenty-five years. These years of peace and happiness were spent at 
 Beer-sheba.  The next time we see him his faith is put to a severe 
 test by the command that suddenly came to him to go and offer up 
 Isaac, the heir of all the promises, as a sacrifice on one of the 
 mountains of Moriah. His faith stood the test Heb 11:17-19 He 
 proceeded in a spirit of unhesitating obedience to carry out the 
 command; and when about to slay his son, whom he had laid on the 
 altar, his uplifted hand was arrested by the angel of Jehovah, and a 
 ram, which was entangled in a thicket near at hand, was seized and
 offered in his stead. From this circumstance that place was called
 Jehovah-jireh, i.e., "The Lord will provide." The promises made to
 Abraham were again confirmed (and this was the last recorded word of
 God to the patriarch); and he descended the mount with his son, and
 returned to his home at Beer-sheba Ge 22:19 where he resided
 for some years, and then moved northward to Hebron. Some years after
 this Sarah died at Hebron, being 127 years old. Abraham acquired now
 the needful possession of a burying-place, the cave of Machpelah, by
 purchase from the owner of it, Ephron the Hittite Ge 23:1ff
 and there he buried Sarah. His next care was to provide a wife for
 Isaac, and for this purpose he sent his steward, Eliezer, to Haran
 (or Charran,) Ac 7:2 where his brother Nahor and his family
 resided Ge 11:31 The result was that Rebekah, the daughter of
 Nahor's son Bethuel, became the wife of Isaac Ge 24:1ff
 Abraham then himself took to wife Keturah, who became the mother of
 six sons, whose descendants were afterwards known as the "children
 of the east" Jud 6:3 and later as "Saracens." At length all his 
 wanderings came to an end. At the age of 175 years, 100 years after
 he had first entered the land of Canaan, he died, and was buried in 
 the old family burying-place at Machpelah Ge 25:7-10 The 
 history of Abraham made a wide and deep impression on the ancient 
 world, and references to it are interwoven in the religious 
 traditions of almost all Eastern nations. He is called "the friend 
 of God" Jas 2:23 "faithful Abraham" Ga 3:9 "the father of us
 all" Ro 4:16
Kamus Pedoman
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Kamus Gering
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bapak dari suatu bangsa yang besar. Kej 17:5.
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